Product INN: Nitrofurantoinum
Deva: 100 mg tablets
Product ATC Code: J01XE01
For the treatment of acute uncomplicated and severe chronic recurrent lower urinary tract infections, caused by susceptible bacteria.
For the prophylaxis against urinary tract infections.
Product Mechanism of Action
Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial agent, synthetic nitrofuran derivative, active against the majority of urinary pathogens. The exact mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. It is considered that the mechanism of action is based on the ability to inhibit various microbial enzyme systems Nitrofurantoin is bacteriostatic at low doses and bactericidal at high doses. Nitrofurantoin efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections is dependent on high concentrations in the urine, as nitrofurantoin bactericidal concentrations are achieved only in urinary tract. The medicinal product is ineffective in case of systemic bacterial infections, since nitrofurantoin bacteriostatic concentrations in the blood and tissues cannot be achieved due to the rapid renal elimination.
Nitrofurantoin is active against the majority of urinary pathogens. The wide range of organisms sensitive to the bactericidal activity include: Enterococcus Species, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter Species, group B streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis, as well as rare urinary pathogens Salmonella Species, Bacteroides Species, Streptococcus pneumonia.
Moderately susceptible species: Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter Species.
Species for which resistance may be a problem: most strains of Proteus species or Serratia species. Nitrofurantoin has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Providencia Species, Acinetobacter Species.
Nitrofurantoin is not recommended for the treatment of pyelonephritis or renal parenchymal inflammation, as well as urinary tract infections caused by strains of Gonococci, Chlamydia or Mycoplasma.
Development of resistance to nitrofurantoin is not significant, but it is possible in case of prolonged therapy. Cross-resistance with other antibacterial agent, excluding nitrofuran derivatives, has not been observed.
To be taken with or shortly after meals with a sufficient amount of water.
Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections.
Adults: 100mg two times daily for seven days
Children over 12 years of age may use the adult doses.
Severe chronic recurrent urinary tract infections.
Adults: 100mg 3 to 4 times per day for seven days
Dose reduction or nitrofurantoin withdrawal may be required in case of nausea.
Prophylaxis against urinary tract infections.
Adults: 100 mg before bedtime.
Children under 12 years of age: Not suitable for children under 12 years of age, due to nitrofurantoin dose in one tablet. A more suitable dosage form, containing a smaller amount of nitrofurantoin is recommended for this age group.
There is no data on the doses of Furadonin in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment and elderly patients.
The recommended doses for children and infants over three months of age:
For the treatment of urinary tract infections: 3mg/kg body weight a day in four divided doses.
For the prophylaxis against urinary tract infections: 1mg/kg body weight once a day before bedtime.
Medicines unreasonable use is harmful to health.